Deutschland über Alles: Discrimination in German Football

Considering that the reunification of Germany demanded that present-day German society adjusts to the new political realities and an all-expansive European Union, by means of integrating the populations of a previously divided nation, the emergence of neo-Nazi groups soon after the fall of the Berlin Wall did not facilitate the relevant process of transition. On the contrary, it made certain that the fascist past of Germany was exposed, just as the socio-political differences caused by the country’s division were reflected. Given the capacity of football to strengthen national identity, this essay explores the extent of manipulation the popular game had to endure during the Nazi regime’s stay in power and then assesses racial discrimination in German football in its present form, as well as the role of the extreme right.


Christos Kassimeris is the Dean of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences at European University Cyprus

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